A-Gentle-Introduction-to-Functional-JavaScript 0

Notes and code from the 3 part crowdcast with Derick Bailey summer, 2016

A Gentle Introduction to Functional JavaScript

If anyone has questions you can tweet me at @ChetHarrison

Functional Programming tends to intimidate people with the academic terms borrowed from Category Theory to describe interfaces known as “Algebraic Structures”. JavaScript was not designed to be a functional language. It has adopted this paradigm from other languages. Fortunately JavaScript is well suited to the the task thanks to first-class, higher-order functions and proper tail-call optimization provided in ES2015. The adoption of functional programming in JavaScript was further obfuscated by many different pre-spec examples the same way Promises developed pre A+ spec. The current de facto specification, “Fantasy-land”, was proposed April, 2013 and appears to have found broad adoption.

The more abstract a concept is the harder it is to understand. Interfaces are abstract by nature. The more abstract they are the more powerful they become because they allow us to solve a wider range of seemingly unrelated problems with a surprisingly small set of patterns.

The good news is you don’t have to flip a switch and go functional. You can apply bits of functional technique as you learn them. I have been slowly building up my functional play book over the past 3 years. As a result every refactor becomes a lot more enjoyable.

Ultimately we will see that a stateless app is pointless. But you need to judiciously select the points in your code where you allow mutation to occur. Most of the internal organs of your code should strive to be immutable, and consequently, extraordinarily testable. The more mutations you can eliminate the better off you are.

Why should your care about immutability? Chip manufactures are at the atomic boundaries of transistor miniaturization. As a result clock rates have not increased since 2004.

Multi-core is currently the preferred strategy for improving speed. Routines with shared mutable state cannot be distributed in parallel across multiple cores because is not thread-safe. See Robert Martin’s talk on this topic. Just note: an “assignment statement” is totally benign a “reassignment statement” is problematic.

When you reassign (mutate) a variable you are introducing state change to your application. To reproduce a complex bug you often need the sequence of computations that lead to the failure. When you mutate variables you are throwing away that sequence.

How do you avoid state change? Any time you need to model a state change you pass the previous value to a function that returns a new value. Don’t mutate the old value just return a new one.

Imagine a banking application. If you create an account object that holds a balance variable and mutates it every time you deposit or withdraw money you have no way generating a monthly bank statement listing all of your activity without implementing that functionality. If you return a new account object with an updated balance you will accumulate a history of the exact sequence that lead up to the current balance. That can be pretty useful …

Check out “Time Travel Debug” from Redux DevTools redux


Glossary

First-Class Functions Functions are valid values like primitives and objects.

Higher-Order Functions Functions that can take and return functions.

Side Effects When a function mutates state outside it’s scope.

Referential Transparency an input of a will always return an output of b. One of the many benefits of referential transparency is that it can be cached. Caching is good test of referential transparency.

Purity A referentialy transparent function with no side effects that is passed all the resources it needs to do it’s job.

Imperative vs. Declarative A for loop is a very specific solution to looping. We call this “imperative” because we are explaining how to do the loop. With Array.prototype.map we are declaring what we want. If I discover a more optimal way to map I can refactor my map function with out breaking all the code that calls it. We call this “declarative”. So if you want to know if you are writing declarative code ask your self if you can refactor it with out breaking the code that calls it.

Arity The number of parameters a function takes.

Partial Application A function with an incomplete set of parameters.

Currying A curried function that is passed fewer parameters than it’s arity will return a partially applied function that will delay execution until it has been passed all of the required parameters. see this post by Hugh Jackson

This is the example JSBin from the talk. Note JSBin can be a bit fussy so if it does not run at first try a refresh.

const add = ( a, b ) => a + b; // has an arity of 2
const addC = curry( add ); // returns a curried add function
add3 = addC( 3 ); // add was partially applied

// the addC( 3 ) call will return a new function that looks like this
b => 3 + b;
console.log( add3( 1 ) ); // logs 4

Point Free A style where we strive to pipe data from the output of one function to the input of the next avoiding named parameters. It is more concise, easier to read, and lends itself to composition.

const inc = x => x + 1; // x is a point
const add3 = compose( inc, inc, inc ); // no points here
const val = add3( 1 ); // val === 4

// Note composition reads from left to right!
// compose will return something like this
x => inc( inc( inc( x ) ) );

Composition Chaining functions together by piping the output of one function to the input of the next in the composition. Composing pure functions will respect the law of associativity. This will allow us to safely apply some optimizations to our code.

Associativity A binary operation in which the order of evaluation is not important. Addition of whole numbers is associative.

const a = ( 1 + 2 ) + 3; // 6
const b = 1 + ( 2 + 3 ); // 6
a === b; // true

Subtraction of whole numbers is not associative.

const a = ( 1 - 2 ) - 3; // -4
const b = 1 - ( 2 - 3 ); // 2
a === b: // false

Container an object that you can place a value in with a function that takes a function and applies it to the value as input and returning a new container of the same type with the result as output.

Examples

// Simulating stateful behavior without mutations https://jsbin.com/laxoba/edit?js,console

Part One Homework

This will probably be a bit reminiscent “the Karate Kid” where Daniel has to paint the fence a thousand times before Mr. Miyagi will show him real Karate moves. But you will find, like Daniel, that after you are done painting fences you will already know karate. The patterns we will cover in Part Two are built on some simple and familiar building blocks.

Probably the most common pattern in computing is the concept of and Item and a Collection. When you write a function that will transform some input to some output it should be operating on an Item not a Collection because we have a way of mapping over a Collection and applying that function to each Item.

This is an excellent tutorial written by Jafar Husain, tech lead at Netflix. It should take you a few hours and will give you skills you can apply immediately.

Explore some of the FP utility libraries out there:

For a quick playground I would pull those libs into your favorite JSBin or CodePen etc. and try out some composition. All of Ramda’s functions are curried. Many of those sites let you select a library from a pre-populated list. All of them will let you edit the HTML pane. If you don’t see the library you would like you can past the following HTML in the page and you will have a reference to Ramda via it’s exported namespace of “R” and lowdash-fp’s “_”.

<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/ramda/0.21.0/ramda.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/lodash/4.13.1/lodash.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/lodash/4.13.1/lodash.fp.min.js"></script>

Here is a sample bin that’s all set up

Go ahead and “clone” it from the drop down menu in the upper left corner and you should be set up.


Part 2

The Path to Building a Monad

Here is the big reveal: The Array is just a container for mutable values. After completing Jafar’s tutorial you should be pretty handy with some basic functions that operate on JS Arrays. You now know how to side step mutations by producing a new value / values in a new Array.

Because a pure function has referential transparency it will always return a value. Because it is first class we can think of it as a lazy value.

Before we dive into Functors and Monads I would like to point out two ways of working with these containers. We can add them to an object and call them like myObj.doThis(), or we can write a doThis function that takes an object parameter and operates on it in the same fashion. ie

const result = [].map( doThis );

const result = map = ( doThis, array ) => array.map( doThis );

Much of Ramda’s power comes from the fact that many of the methods defined in the Fantasyland algebraic structures are implemented in Ramda and “dispatch” to the methods of one of the parameters it is called with if it has a method of the same name. For example: the Ramda docs say that R.concat “Dispatches to the concat method of the first argument, if present.” That means if I have:

class Monad {
	constructor( value ) {
		this.value = value;
	}
}

Monad.prototype.of = Monad.of = value => new Monad( value );

Monad.prototype.concat = Monad.concat = function( monad ) {
	return Monad.of( [ this.value, monad.value ] )
}

Monad.prototype.toString = function() {
	return `Monad( ${ this.value } )`;
}

and we call it like this:

const result1 = Monad.of( 'foo' ).concat( Monad.of( 'bar' ) );

it is equivalent to:

const result2 = R.concat( Monad.of( 'foo' ), Monad.of( 'bar' ) );

console.log( result1.toString() === result2.toString() ); // true

Will log this this Monad( [ 'foo', 'bar' ] ) to the console.

You start with a collection of items, and some way of combining them two at a time. These are the Monoid rules. Monads are a subset of Monoids so they gain much of their composability from enforcing them.

Rule 1 (Closure): there is an operator that will take 2 inputs of the same type and produce one output of the same type. Example:

1 + 1 = 2

This takes two Integers and produces one Integer.

Rule 2 (Associativity): When combining more than two things, the pairwise combinations you choose don’t matter. Example:

( 1 + 2 ) + 3 === 6 left association

1 + ( 2 + 3 ) === 6 right association

Rule 3 (Identity): The result of combining the “identity” element (known as the “empty” in Fantasyland) with x is always x. Example: “Under the + operator the set of integers has an Identity of 0

0 + 1 = 1 left identity

1 + 0 = 1 right identity

Armed with these rules you can perform the digital mastication of reduce because reduce requires a concat function and an empty value (aka an identity).

A Functor takes takes a value or usually a list of values and has map function that is used to apply each element of the values to produce a NEW Functor of the same type. The Functor you know well is JS’s Array.

[ 1, 2 ].map( x => x + 1 ) // returns [ 2, 3 ]

and just to drive the Ramda point home, this does the same thing

R.map( ( x => x + 1 ), [ 2, 3 ] )

An Applicative Functor (AP) has an of method that is a factory for producing Applicative Functors (note this is called return in Haskell) and an ap method. This allows you to put a function into it’s value and “apply” it to values in other Applicative Functors. Here is the key thing. The function you “lift” into your AP must be curried. In FP we are always passing in one data parameter. The only way to feed a function that has multiple parameters (aka arity > 1) is to feed it one param at a time. Don’t eat your dinner in multiple bites. Take it down two bytes at a time.

A Monad implements these preceding concepts but adds a new method… chain, known as bind in Haskell. Sorry I’m a parent, but map is like changing a diaper. You are going to take a value (a baby) out of a Functor (a diaper) do your “transformation” (clean the baby) and put it back into a new Functor (use a new diaper of the same type). chain is like you have a value (a teenager) that says “I want to change into a new outfit”. Clothes are Monads so they use chain to take off one outfit (Monad) and put on a (Monad) of a different type.

Code

References

Part 3

The Almighty “Continuation” Monad: the “Observable”

Arrow animation example

Asynchronism and Concurrency are two of the hardest concepts to implement and reason about.

Associated Bugs * Bug Class I * Symptom: I have a bug that I cannot consistently reproduce. * Diagnosis: You have shared mutable state. * Prescription: An Observable.

  • Bug Class II
    • Symptom: I have a memory leak because I forgot to unsubscribe from my event listener.
    • Diagnosis: It should not be your responsibility to do that.
    • Prescription: An Observable.

The Iterator Pattern as described by the GoF on p.257 of Design Patterns, “The key idea in this pattern is to take the responsibility for access and traversal out of the list object and put it into an Iterator object”.

The problem with browser event APIs is that the responsibility of unsubscribing is placed on the wrong object: the Consumer. In Observables we place the responsibility on the right object: the Producer. Understanding where to place responsibility of any function is an extremely valuable skill to develop.

The Observable presents a single universal, composable API example for working with: * Events * Network Requests * Timeouts/Intervals * Promises * Sync Collections like Arrays and Strings * Task Monads

In the front end that means you will use them to build: * Animations * App Init * Data Access * View Model Bindings

If we think of a native JS Array as synchronous collections we can pull data from when we want. We will now think about Observables as collections of Asyncronous data that are pushed to us over time. We can use the same set of operators on both. Nothing new to learn and easy to reason about.

Let’s look at a metaphorical async request. Suppose your house catches on fire. You call the fire department then you pick up a fire extinguisher and put out the fire yourself. When the firetruck arrives you have no need for their services because the Environment has changed.

In this context the implicit instructions you gave to the fire department, “please put out the fire”, are called a Continuation. The tricky part is figuring how to deal with your Continuation in a new Environment. This led to an early functional style of programming called Continuation Passing Style (CPS).

From my research the earliest reference to a Continuation is Adriaan van Wijngaarden in 1964

Continuation Passing Style (CPS) * CPS is powerful but extremely complex to reason about. * Fortunately it can be expressed in Monadic form.

Iterable vs. Observable video * Observable is an “inverted” Iterable * The Iterable and Observable objects are Producers * The Iterator and Observer objects are conduits to the Consumer * In the Iterable pattern the Consumer calls the Producer and it returns an Iterator. The Consumer is in charge of pulling the next value out of the Iterator. * In the Observable pattern you pass in an Observer and it pushes the next value to the Consumer through the Observer.

Lazy vs. Eager * don’t do work you may not need to do

Promise vs. Observable * Can’t cancel a Promise * Promise is an eager item * Observable is a lazy collection * Can’t retry a Promise with out wrapping it

Items vs. Collections * If we can use an API that can handle a collection and a collection can be both empty and contain one item, let’s use that.

Observable from scratch * Examples * Observable takes a subscribe function that takes an Observer and returns a Disposable * Observables use the domain specific language of collections. The following Fantasyland methods correspond to RxJS methods * “of” is “create” * “map” is “map” * “chain” is “flatMap” or “concatMap” * Jafar uses “forEach” === “subscribe” in his Frontend Masters Course * Observer is an object with 3 callbacks that returns a Disposable * onNext * onError * onCompleted * Disposable has a “dispose” method that knows how to clean up

RxJS Reactive Extensions * Drag and Drop with Rx * Autocomplete with Rx * Repo * Examples * Docs * Better Docs * Operators * Obsevable.create()

Flattening Strategies for 2-dimensional Observables. Map returns our transformed stream in a new Observable so we end up with an Observable of Observables. This means we need to flatten inner Observables to one outer observable. Marble Diagrams can help you visualize the results of applying the various Observable operations. Here are the flattening strategies you are going to use the most: * merge first come first served * concat preserves order * switchLatest * zip

If the letters represent items arriving from left to right and top to bottom over time the results of concat and merge are displayed below.

stream1 A C E
stream2  B D F
concat  A C E B D F
merge   ABCDEF

xAll and xMap Operators and Aliases

Disposal * take * takeUntil * flatMapLatest


Extra Credit

Hot vs. Cold * Cold Producer to Consumer data stream is one to one * Hot Producer to Consumer data stream is one to many * Observable.publish will convert a Cold Observable to a Hot one so you can have many Consumers receive the same data. * A Cold Observable: multiple distributed copies of the same movie to a set of Consumers. * A Hot Observable: a live performance that multiple Consumers can attend.

Subject * A composite Observable and Observer * It is a Proxy that will take multiple Observer subscriptions and can subsequently subscribe to a Producer Observable.

Schedulers

do/tap for quarantined side effects and debug

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Notes and code from the 3 part crowdcast with Derick Bailey summer, 2016 ...


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