.. image:: https://travis-ci.org/arximboldi/immer.svg?branch=master :target: https://travis-ci.org/arximboldi/immer :alt: Travis Badge
.. image:: https://codecov.io/gh/arximboldi/immer/branch/master/graph/badge.svg :target: https://codecov.io/gh/arximboldi/immer :alt: CodeCov Badge
.. raw:: html
<a href="https://github.com/arximboldi/immer"><img style="position: absolute; top: 0; right: 0; border: 0;" src="https://camo.githubusercontent.com/38ef81f8aca64bb9a64448d0d70f1308ef5341ab/68747470733a2f2f73332e616d617a6f6e6177732e636f6d2f6769746875622f726962626f6e732f666f726b6d655f72696768745f6461726b626c75655f3132313632312e706e67" alt="Fork me on GitHub" data-canonical-src="https://s3.amazonaws.com/github/ribbons/forkme_right_darkblue_121621.png"></a>
immer is a library of persistent_ and immutable_ data structures written in C++.
.. _persistent: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persistent_data_structure .. _immutable: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immutable_object
Persistent means that when you modify the data structure, the old value is preserved.
Immutable means that all manipulation methods are
An object is never modified in place but a new value is returned instead. Since the old value is still there and it will never change, the new value can transparently keep references to common parts of it. This property is called structural sharing.
Read the docs
Check the code
[Video (7min)] <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9nupb1SNo3Q>_
The tragedy of the value based architecture (MeetingC++ 2016)
.. attention:: This library is work in progress and its API is not complete enough yet.
A stable release is scheduled for early Q2 2017. This release will use a more liberal license, which is yet to be determined.
.. admonition:: Sponsorship :class: tip
This library is so far a non-remunerated full time job and months of research and development are invested in it. To ensure it’s long term sustainability, we will be launching a sponsoring program in early 2017.
Should your organization be interested in supporting it, contact: [email protected]
.. github does not support the
literalinclude directive. This
example is copy pasted form
.. code-block:: c++
const auto v2 = v1.set(0, 42); assert(v1 == 13 && v2 == 42);
Thanks to persistence and structural sharing, new values can
be efficiently compared with old ones. This enables simpler ways of
reasoning about change that sit at the core of modern
interactive systems programming paradigms like
Passing immutable data structures by value does not need to copy
any data. In the absence of mutation, data can be safely read
from multiple concurrent processes, and enable concurrency
share by communicating_ efficiently.
Some recent immutable data structures have interesting properties
O(log(n)) concatenation, which enable new kinds of
.. _reactive programming: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_programming .. _share by communicating: https://blog.golang.org/share-memory-by-communicating .. _parallelization algorithms: http://docs.scala-lang.org/overviews/parallel-collections/overview.html
Idiomatic This library doesn’t pretend that it is written in Haskell. It leverages features from recent standards to provide an API that is both efficient and natural for a C++ developer.
You use C++ because you need this. Immer implements state of
the art data structures with efficient cache utilization and have
been proven production ready in other languages. It also includes
our own improvements over that are only possible because of the
C++’s ability to abstract over memory layout. We monitor the
performance impact of every change by collecting
results_ directly from CI.
.. _benchmark results: https://public.sinusoid.es/misc/immer/reports/
We leverage templates and
policy-based design_ to build
data-structures that can be adapted to work efficiently for
various purposes and architectures, for example, by choosing among
memory management strategies<memory>. This turns
immer into a good foundation to provide immutable data
structures to higher level languages with a C runtime, like
Python_ or Guile_.
This library is written in C++14 and a compliant compiler is
necessary. It is
continuously tested_ with Clang 3.8 and GCC 6, but
it might work with other compilers and versions.
No external library is necessary and there are no other requirements.
.. _continuously tested: https://travis-ci.org/arximboldi/immer
.. note:: Some optional modules do have other dependencies, but this is noted in their respective documentation pages.
This is a header only library. Just make sure that the project root is in your include path.
One may generate a development project using
mkdir build && cd build cmake ..
To automatically fetch and build all depedencies required to build and run the tests and benchmarks run::
From then on, one may build and run all tests by doing::
In order to build and run all benchmarks when running
cmake again with the option
results of running the benchmarks will be saved to a folder
reports/ in the project root.
.. _cmake: https://cmake.org/
This software is licensed under the
.. admonition:: License header
Copyright (C) 2016 Juan Pedro Bolivar Puente This file is part of immer. immer is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. immer is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with immer. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
.. _gplv3 license: https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.en.html