peewee 0,1,4,7,8,0,7,0 python

a small, expressive orm -- supports postgresql, mysql and sqlite

.. image::


Peewee is a simple and small ORM. It has few (but expressive) concepts, making it easy to learn and intuitive to use.

  • A small, expressive ORM
  • Written in python with support for versions 2.6+ and 3.2+.
  • built-in support for sqlite, mysql and postgresql
  • tons of extensions available in the playhouse <>_

    • Postgresql HStore, JSON, arrays and more <>_
    • SQLite full-text search, user-defined functions, virtual tables and more <>_
    • Schema migrations <> and model code generator <>
    • Connection pool <>_
    • Encryption <>_
    • and much, much more... <>_

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New to peewee? Here is a list of documents you might find most helpful when getting started:

  • Quickstart guide <>_ -- this guide covers all the essentials. It will take you between 5 and 10 minutes to go through it.
  • Guide to the various query operators <>_ describes how to construct queries and combine expressions.
  • Field types table <>_ lists the various field types peewee supports and the parameters they accept.

For flask helpers, check out the flask_utils extension module <>. You can also use peewee with the popular extension flask-admin <> to provide a Django-like admin interface for managing peewee models.


Defining models is similar to Django or SQLAlchemy:

.. code-block:: python

from peewee import *
from playhouse.sqlite_ext import SqliteExtDatabase
import datetime

db = SqliteExtDatabase('my_database.db')

class BaseModel(Model):
    class Meta:
        database = db

class User(BaseModel):
    username = CharField(unique=True)

class Tweet(BaseModel):
    user = ForeignKeyField(User, related_name='tweets')
    message = TextField()
    created_date = DateTimeField(
    is_published = BooleanField(default=True)

Connect to the database and create tables:

.. code-block:: python

db.create_tables([User, Tweet])

Create a few rows:

.. code-block:: python

charlie = User.create(username='charlie')
huey = User(username='huey')

# No need to set `is_published` or `created_date` since they
# will just use the default values we specified.
Tweet.create(user=charlie, message='My first tweet')

Queries are expressive and composable:

.. code-block:: python

# A simple query selecting a user.
User.get(User.username == 'charles')

# Get tweets created by one of several users. The "<<" operator
# corresponds to the SQL "IN" operator.
usernames = ['charlie', 'huey', 'mickey']
users = << usernames)
tweets = << users)

# We could accomplish the same using a JOIN:
tweets = (Tweet
          .where(User.username << usernames))

# How many tweets were published today?
tweets_today = (Tweet
                    (Tweet.created_date >= &
                    (Tweet.is_published == True))

# Paginate the user table and show me page 3 (users 41-60)., 20)

# Order users by the number of tweets they've created:
tweet_ct = fn.Count(
users = (User
         .select(User, tweet_ct.alias('ct'))
         .join(Tweet, JOIN.LEFT_OUTER)

# Do an atomic update
Counter.update(count=Counter.count + 1).where(
    Counter.url == request.url)

Check out the example app <>_ for a working Twitter-clone website written with Flask.

Learning more

Check the documentation <>_ for more examples.

Specific question? Come hang out in the #peewee channel on, or post to the mailing list, . If you would like to report a bug, create a new issue <>_ on GitHub.

Still want more info?

.. image::

I've written a number of blog posts about building applications and web-services with peewee (and usually Flask). If you'd like to see some real-life applications that use peewee, the following resources may be useful:

  • Building a note-taking app with Flask and Peewee <> as well as Part 2 <> and Part 3 <>_.
  • Analytics web service built with Flask and Peewee <>_.
  • Personalized news digest (with a boolean query parser!) <>_.
  • Using peewee to explore CSV files <>_.
  • Structuring Flask apps with Peewee <>_.
  • Creating a lastpass clone with Flask and Peewee <>_.
  • Building a web-based encrypted file manager with Flask, peewee and S3 <>_.
  • Creating a bookmarking web-service that takes screenshots of your bookmarks <>_.
  • Building a pastebin, wiki and a bookmarking service using Flask and Peewee <>_.
  • Encrypted databases with Python and SQLCipher <>_.
  • Dear Diary: An Encrypted, Command-Line Diary with Peewee <>_.
  • Query Tree Structures in SQLite using Peewee and the Transitive Closure Extension <>_.

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