django-flag python

flagging of inapproriate/spam content


This app lets users of your site flag content as inappropriate or spam.

PS : the version 0.3 is a big rewrite, but with retrocompatibility kept in mind. 0.4 broke a little this compatibility by updating fields inmodels.

Where’s Wally ?

The original code is here : This fork (by twidi) is here :


django-flag has no requirements, except django (1.3) of course

pip install git+git://


The behavior of django-flag can be tweaked with some settings :


Set FLAG_ALLOW_COMMENTS to False to disallow users to add a comment when flagging an object. Default to True.


Set FLAG_LIMIT_SAME_OBJECT_FOR_USER to a number to limit the times a user can flag a single object. If 0, there is no limit. Default to 0.


Set FLAG_LIMIT_FOR_OBJECT to a number to limit the times an object can be flagged. If 0, there is no limit. Default to 0.


Set FLAG_MODELS to a list/tuple of models to limit the models that can be flagged. For each model, use a string like ‘applabel.modelname’. If not set (None), all models can be flagged. If set to an empty list/tuple, no model can be flagged. Default to None.


Set FLAG_STATUSES to a list of tuples to set the available statuses for each flagged content. The first entry MUST be a (small: less than 256) positive integer The default status used when a user flag an object is the first of this list. Default to :

    (1, _("flagged")),
    (2, _("flag rejected by moderator")),
    (3, _("creator notified")),
    (4, _("content removed by creator")),
    (5, _("content removed by moderator")),


Set FLAG_SEND_MAILS to True if you want to have emails sent when object are flagged. See others settings SEND_MAILS_* for more configuration Default to False


Set FLAG_SEMD_MAILS_TO to a list of email addresses to sent mails when an object is flagged. Each entry can be either a single email address, or a tuple with (name, email address) but only the mail will be used. Default to settings.ADMINS


Set FLAG_SEND_MAILS_FROM to an email address to use as the send of mails sent when an object is flagged. Default to settings.DEFAULT_FROM_EMAIL


Set FLAG_SEND_MAILS_RULES to define when to send mails for flags. This settings is a list of tuple, each line defining a rule. A rule is a tuple with two entries, the first one is the minimum flag for an object for which this rule apply, and the second one is the frequency : Example : (4, 3) = if an object is flagged 4 times or more, send a mail every 3 flags (4, 7 and 10) If this rule is followed by (10, 5), it will be used only when an object is flagged between 5 (included) and 10 times (not included), then the 10 rules will apply (10, 15, 20…) A mail will be send if the LIMIT_FOR_OBJECT is reached, ignoring the rules. Default to [(1, 1) : send a mail for each flag (if FLAG_SEND_MAILS is True)


# mail will be send for 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25...
    (1, 1),  # send a mail for every flag
    (4, 3),  # send a mail every 3 flags starting to the 5th flag
    (10, 5), # send a mail every 5 flags starting to the 10th flag


Use FLAG_MODELS_SETTINGS if you want to override the global settings for a specific model. It’s a dict with the string represetation of the model (myapp.mymodel) as key, and a dict as value. This last dict can have zero, one or more of the settings described in this module (MODELS and of course MODELS_SETTINGS), using names WITHOUT the FLAG_ prefix Default to an empty dict : each model will use the global settings


FLAG_SEND_MAILS_TO = ('[email protected]',)
    'myapp.mymodel': {
        'SEND_MAILS_TO': ('[email protected]', '[email protected]',)
    'otherapp.othermodel': {
        'SEND_MAILS': False,
        'STATUSES': [
            (1, 'Simple flag'),
            (2, 'Rejected by moderator'),
            (3, 'Rejected by super-moderator'),
            (4, 'Accepted by moderator'),
            (5, 'Accepted by super-moderator'),


  • add flag to your INSTALLED_APPS
  • add the urls to your urls : url(r'^flag/', include('flag.urls')),

djang-flag provides some usefull templatetags and filters to be included via {% load flag_tags %}.

There are two ways to use these templatetags to use django-flag :

Only the flag form

On any page you can use the flag templatetag to add a form for flagging the object. This form will or will not have a comment box, depending of your FLAG_ALLOW_COMMENTS settings. This templatetag is an inclusion_tag calling the template flag/flag_form.html, so you can easily override it.

This default template is as simple as :

<form method="POST" action="{% url flag %}">{% csrf_token %}
    {{ form.as_p }}
    {% if next %}<input type="hidden" name="next" value="{{ next }}{% endif %}" />
    <input type="submit" value="Submit Flag" /></td>


{% load flag_tags %}
{% flag an_object %}

If you want a moderator (user with is_staff) to update the status of the flagged content (default to 1 for a normal flag), you can use the flag_with_status temlatetag instead of the flag one. They both work the same way.

Flag via a confirmation page

If you want the form to be on an other page, which play the role of a confirmation page, you can use the flag_confirm_url template filter, which will insert the url of the confirm page for this object. This url is linked to a view which will display the confirm form (with or without a comment box, depending of your FLAG_ALLOW_COMMENTS settings.) in a template flag/confirm.html.

This default template is as simple as :

{% block flag_form %}
    {% include "flag/flag_form.html" %}
{% endblock %}

You can override the template used by this view by two ways :

  • create your own flag/confirm.html template
  • create, for each model that can be flagged and for which you want a specific template, a template flag/confirm_applabel_modelname.html (by replacing app_label and model_name by the good values, ex. auth and user for the User model in django.contrib.auth).

Usage of the filter:

{% load flag_tags %}
<a href="{{ an_object|flag_confirm_url }}">flag</a>

If you want a moderator (user with is_staff) to update the status of the flagged content (default to 1 for a normal flag), you can use the flag_confirm_url_with_status filter instead of the flag_confirm_url one. They both work the same way.


When an object is flagged, a signal content_flagged is sent, with the flagged_content and flagged_instance objects (flagged_instance should be called flag_instance but this is kept for retrocompatibility).

from flag.signals import content_flagged

def something_was_flagged(sender, signal, flagged_content, flagged_instance):
    # do something here


This signal is sent only when a new flag is created, not when the add fail and not when a flag is updated. And only when it is created via the form. When saved in admin or in a shell, the signal is not sent. In the shell you must pass a send_signal parameter (True) to the save or add methods. If you want a signal sent for every save of a flag, you can use the django post_save one.


When an object is flagged, and if the FLAG_SEND_MAILS setting is True, the SEND_MAILS_RULES rules will be analyzed and if one matching the current count of flags for this object, a mail is send to recipients defined in SEND_MAILS_TO.

The subjet and body of the sent mail are stored in templates flag/mail_alert_subject.txt and flag/mail_alert_body.txt.

You can override these temlates by two ways :

  • create your own flag/mail_alert_subject.txt and/or flag/mail_alert_body.txt templates
  • create, for each model that can be flagged and for which you want a specific template, flag/mail_alert_subject_applabel_modelname.txt and/or flag/mail_alert_body_applabel_modelname.txt (by replacing app_label and model_name by the good values, ex. auth and user for the User model in django.contrib.auth).

Other things you would want to know

More template filters

django-flag provides 3 more simple filters to use in your application :

  • {{ an_object|can_be_flagged_by:request.user }} Will return True or False depending if the user can flag this object or not, regarding all the flag settings
  • {{ an_object|flag_count }} : Will return the number of flag for this object
  • {{ an_object|flag_status }} : Will return the current flag status for this object (see the FLAG_STATUSES settings above for more informations about status)


django-flag can save the creator of the flagged objects in its own model. This can be used to retrieve all flagged objects of one user :

flagged_objects = user.flagged_content.all()

To set the creator, it’s as easy as adding the name of the creator field of the flagged object as a parameter to the flag templatetag or the flag_confirm_url filter. Then django-flag will check it and save a reference into its model. Example, with an_object having a author field as a ForeignKey to the User model :

{% flag an_object 'author' %}
<a href="{{ an_object|flag_confirm_url:'author' }}">flag</a>


In django-flag a flag has a status. By default it’s set to the first entrie of the FLAG_STATUSES settings (or a specific STATUSES setting for a specific model), which must have 1 has value.

But we provide some ways to let staff update the status by adding a status field in the form, filled with entries from the FLAG_STATUSES settings. :

  • a new (third) parameter to the flag templatetag, to be set to True (or whatever sounds like True…)
  • a temlpate tag flag_with_status, workin the same way as flag with the third paramter to True
  • a template filter : flag_confirm_url_with_status, working the same way as flag_confirm_url

Note that if the user is not staff, displaying or validating the form with the status field will raise an exception.

Exemple of usage :

{% if user.is_staff %}
    <a href="{{ an_object|flag_confirm_url_with_status }}">Update flag's status</a>
{% else %}
    <a href="{{ an_object|flag_confirm_url }}">flag</a>
{% endif %}

or without confirmation page :

{# `0` is here to say "no creator_field" #}
{% flag an_object 0 user.is_staff %}

When the status is updated, the flagger is saved as the last moderator (moderator field in the FlaggedContent model)

GenericRelation and filters

If you want to retrive some objects with a flag of a specific status, your can add a GenericRelation to your model:

from flag.models import FlaggedContent

class MyModel(models.Model):
    flagged = GenericRelation(FlaggedContent)

and then do :

objects = MyModel.objects.filter(flagged__status=1)

If you cannot add a GenericRelation (if you can’t update a model), you can do this :

ct_filter = {'content_type__app_label': MyModel._meta.app_label, 'content_type__model': MyModel._meta.model_name}
objects = MyModel.filter(id__in=FlaggedContent.objects.filter(**ct_filter).values_list('object_id', flat=True).filter(status=1))

or this, with a helper we provide :

objects = MyModel.filter(id__in=FlaggedContent.objects.filter_for_model(MyModel, only_object_ids=True).filter(status=1))


django-flag is fully tested. Just run test flag in your project. If django-nose is installed, it is used to run tests. You can see a coverage of 98%. Admin and some weird next parameters are not tested.

django-flag also provide a test project, where you can flag users (no other model included).


The admin interface for django-flag has been improved a bit : better list and change form with for this one, links to flagged objects and their authors.



There is two models in django-flag, FlaggedContent and FlagInstance, described below. When an object is flagged for the first time, a FlaggedContent is created, and each flag add a FlagInstance object. The status, count and when_updated fields of the FlaggedContent object are updated on each flag.


This model keeps a reference to the flagged object, store its current status, the flags count, the last moderator, and, eventually, its creator (the user who created the flagged object) The count is the sum of all FlagInstance for the flagged object with a status of 1 (the moderations flag are ignored in the count).


Each flag is stored in this model, which store the user/flagger, the flagged content, an optional comment, the date of the flag, and the status (to keep history)

You can add a flag programmatically with :

FlagInstance.objects.add(flagging_user, object_to_flag, 'creator field (or None)', 'a comment')

In previous version, a add_flag (in function was the way to add a flag. It is always here, for retrocompatibility, but with a simple call to FlagInstance.objects.add.

Views and urls

django-flag has two urls and views :

  • one to display the confirm page, (url flag_confirm, view confirm), with some parameters : app_label, object_name, object_id, creator_field (the last one is optionnal)
  • one to flag (only POST allowed) (url flag, view flag), without any parameter


The form used by django-flag is based on a the CommentSecurityForm provided by django.contrib.comments.forms. It provides a security_hash to limit spoofing (we don’t directly use CommentSecurityForm, but a duplicate, because we don’t want to import the comments models)

When something forbidden is done (bad security hash, object the user can’t flag…), a FlagBadRequest (based on HttpResponseBadRequest) is returned. While in debug mode, this FlagBadRequest doesn’t return a HTTP error (400), but render a template with more information.

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